Our bones support and allow individuals to move. Additionally, bone is crucial for the protection of important organs such as brain and heart from injuries. Bone health can be assessed by the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). BMD indicates a person’s risk for bone fractures or osteoporosis, in which high BMD is associated with healthier bone and vice versa. In order to keep our bones healthy, one has to increase consumption of carotenoid dense foods because carotenoids help to promote bone health by increasing BMD as shown by research below:

Study Significant Findings Reference
Greater serum carotenoid concentration associated with higher bone mineral density in Chinese adults The synergistic effect of high level of alpha-carotene, lycopene and beta-cryptoxanthin are associated with increased BMD at most skeletal sites in women

In men, only high serum alpha-carotene was significantly associated with increased BMD at all sites except for lumbar spine

Zhang Z. Q., et.al. (2016).
Osteoporos Int:
Dietary carotenoid intake as a predictor of bone mineral density Dietary beta-carotene is positively associated with lumbar spine bone mass in postmenopausal women
Lycopene intake is positively correlated with bone mass of total body and lumbar spine in men
Dietary carotenoid intake is linked with bone health
Wattanapenpaiboon, N., et.al (2003). Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr
SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS – BONE HEALTH
1. Zhang Z. Q., et al. (2016). Greater serum carotenoid concentration associated with higher bone mineral density in Chinese adults. Osteoporos Int, Vol 27(4): pp 1593-601.
2. Wattanapenpaiboon, N., et.al (2003). Dietary carotenoid intake as a predictor of bone mineral density. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(4):467-73.
3. Hayhoe, RPG. et.al (2017). Carotenoid dietary intakes and plasma concentrations are associated with heel bone ultrasound attenuation and osteoporotic fracture risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Br J Nutr: 117(110): 1439-1453.
4. Hu, Y., et.al (2017). Circulating carotenoids and subsequent risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women. Clin Exp Rheumatol; 35(2):309-312.
5. Wang, Y., et.al (2016). Association between dietary intake of antioxidants and prevalence of femoral head cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions in community-based adults. J Rheumatol; 43(10):1885-1890.
6. Dai, Z., et.al (2014). Protective effects of dietary carotenoids on risk of hip fracture in men: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. J Bone Miner Res; 29(2):408-17. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2041.
7. D’Adamo, C.R., et.al (2012). Higher serum concentrations of dietary antioxidants are associated with lower levels of inflammatory biomarkers during the year after hip fracture. Clin Nutr; 31(5):659-65. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2012.01.013.
8. Umegaki, K., et.al (1997). Feeding mice palm carotene prevents DNA damage in bone marrow and reduction of peripheral leukocyte counts, and enhances survival following X-ray irradiation. Carcinogenesis; 18(10):1943-7.
9.

Umegaki, K., et.al (1995). Feeding of palm oil carotene to mice did not modify X-ray-induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow cells. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo); 41(1):33-42.