Cardiovascular disease is also known as heart and blood vessel disease. One of the classical examples cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis- hardening of the arteries as a result of accumulation of oxidative modification of LDL in the arterial walls triggered by ROS . As heart disease is a global prevalence, the investigation on dietary factors that can help minimizing the risks of developing heart diseases is of utmost importance. In fact, many studies have shown positive link between high intake of carotenoids, particularly alpha- and beta-carotene from fruits and vegetables and reduced risk of heart diseases as shown in the list below:
Serum α-carotene concentrations and risk of death among US adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Follow-up Study
A 14-year follow up epidemiology study demonstrates inverse association between high consumption of alpha-carotene from fruits and vegetables and decreased risk of death from cardiovascular disease among US adults aged 20 years and older
Li, C., et.al, (2011). JAMA
Prospective study of plasma carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to risk of ischemic stroke
Plasma alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lycopene tend to be inversely related to risk of ischemic stroke.
Hak, A.E., et. al (2004). Stroke
Dietary carotenoids and risk of coronary artery disease in women
High intake of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene shows significant inverse association with risk of coronary artery disease.
Osganian, S.K., et.al (2003). Am J Clin Nutr
High plasma levels of alpha-and beta carotene are associated with lower risk of atherosclerosis.
The risk of atherosclerosis decreases with increasing plasma alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations
Willeit, L. et al. (2000). Atherosclerosis.
High plasma levels of alpha and beta-carotene are associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis: results from the Bruneck study
Alpha- and beta-carotene are inversely associated with the prevalence of atherosclerosis in the carotid and femoral arteries and with the 5-y incidence of atherosclerotic lesions
D’Odorico, A., et.al (2000). Atherosclerosis.
Serum carotenoids and coronary heart disease: The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial and Follow-up Study.
Serum carotenoids were inversely related to CHD events
Morris, DL. et al. (1994). Journal of the American Medical Association.
Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study
Low plasma carotenoid concentrations significantly increased mortality from heart disease.
Gey, K.F., et.al (1993). Clin Investg
Vogiatzi, G.; Tousoulis, D.; Stefanadis, C. The role of oxidative stress in atherosclerosis. J. Cardiol. 2009, 50, 402–409.